اهداف توسعه پایدار در افغانستان
اهداف توسعه پایدار یک فراخوان جهانی برای اقدام برای پایان دادن به فقر، حفاظت از محیط زیست و آب و هوای زمین و اطمینان از این است که مردم در همه جا می توانند از صلح و رفاه برخوردار شوند. اهداف سازمان ملل متحد در افغانستان عبارتند از:
11 January 2022
Afghanistan Humanitarian Response Plan 2022
PEOPLE IN NEED 24.4M PLANNED REACH 22.1M REQUIREMENTS (US$) $4.44B OPERATIONAL PARTNERS 158 Foreword We go into 2022 with unprecedented levels of need amongst ordinary women, men and children of Afghanistan. 24.4 million people are in humanitarian need – more than half the population. Years of compounded crises and under-investment have resulted in nearly four times the number of people in need of lifesaving humanitarian assistance compared to just three years ago. The country is currently facing the second drought in four years, the worst of its kind in 27 years. As a result, Afghanistan now has the highest number of people in emergency food insecurity in the world – this is a terrifying 35 per cent increase from the same time last year. More than one in two children under-five is facing acute malnutrition and will be at risk of death if immediate action is not taken. The already over-burdened health system is straining to survive numerous shocks, including due to the continuing impact of COVID-19, spikes in waterborne diseases, frustratingly persistent strains of polio and a sudden collapse in predictable financing that has kept the nationwide health infrastructure afloat. The economic crisis currently facing the country has sent prices skyrocketing, while simultaneously diminishing people’s purchasing power. People are increasingly desparate, have exhausted nearly all coping mechanisms and have resorted to taking on unmanageable debt burdens and relying on dangerous coping mechanisms to survive. The situation of women and girls is particularly dire as their rights and opportunities have become increasingly restricted. The burden the people of Afghanistan have been forced to carry is far to heavy to manage alone. Over the course of a tumultuous and unpredictable year, the humanitarian community has proven its capacity to scale-up to meet new needs, including in response to recurrent natural disasters, escalating conflict, the withdrawal of international forces and the shift in the governance structure. I am proud to say that despite the numerous challenges created by the worsening security environment and increase in overall need, humanitarian organisations have persistently proven their commitment to stay and deliver and increase overall reach. Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) remain the backbone of this response and I look forward to further investment in sustaining a vibrant and engaged NGOs and civil society sector in the year to come. In 2022, humanitarian organisations have an ambitious plan to reach 22.1 million people with life-saving multi-sectoral assistance. In order to do this, the 2022 HRP requires $4.4 billion. People’s survival depends on the 158 dedicated humanitarian organisations operating in Afghanistan receiving sufficient financial resources to deliver. The consequences of late or inadequate funding are very real. Years of funding shortfalls have increasingly required humanitarians to try to do more with less and the limited rollout of complementary development assistance and sudden cessation of predictable development assistance have all been factors in the worsening outlook for 2022. We have made historic strides in working to develop cross-sector approaches with development actors in 2021 based on both life-saving activities and support for services that address basic human needs. Jointly we have developed a common snapshot of overlapping needs and activities that recognises the multidimensional impact of the current crisis. I look forward to the implementation of this innovative and crucial cross-pillar approach in 2022. The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) and InterCluster Coordination Teams (ICCT) are committed to applying a strong gender and protection lens to their work in 2022 acknowledging the disproportionate impacts of the current crisis on women, children and people with disability. Given the scale of vulnerability in Afghanistan, this effort will be guided by a range of both new and well-established technical working groups focused on gender, disability inclusion, genderbased violence (GBV), child protection, accountability to affected people (AAP) and protection from sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). The Humanitarian Country Team will also continue to be led by advice from Afghans themselves, a crucial function that will be supported by dedicated local experts, such as the Afghan Women’s Advisory Group. Sustained, principled humanitarian access to people in need has expanded significantly over the last years, and will continue to be built upon in 2022, and our negotiations will be guided by the Joint Operating Principles (JOPS) and with support from the Humanitarian Access Group. The humanitarian community stands beside the people of Afghanistan, during what is undoubtedly one of the country’s most difficult periods. Given the sheer scale of needs, we are all called upon to remain in solidarity with ordinary Afghans and to expand efforts to reach more people with the life-saving assistance they urgently need to survive. We must act collectively and creatively in this pivotal moment to reduce suffering, rebuild lives and livelihoods and ensure the rights of the most vulnerable are upheld. I urge donors to stay engaged in the wellbeing of the people of Afghanistan, and to give early and generously to humanitarian organisations. The people of Afghanistan cannot wait and the cost of inaction is simply far too high Dr. Ramiz Alakbarov Afghanistan Humanitarian Coordinator
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24 October 2022
BRIEF NO. 1: MEDIA RESTRICTIONS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN AFGHANISTAN
SUMMARY After nearly 20 years of international investment and successful efforts to build a diverse media landscape and strengthen journalism standards, the Afghan media sector has fundamentally changed for the worse since the Taliban (also referred herein to as the de facto authorities) takeover on 15 August 2021. Before mid-August 2021, dedicated initiatives and investment focused on increasing the number of women working in the media across a diversity of roles, training and equipping them with valuable skills and expertise, as well as a substantive focus on women’s rights and gender equality in the media content, including on how gender inequality is a driver of conflict. The Taliban has sought to bring the Afghan media under its control, prohibiting broadcasts and publications that criticize Taliban rule and/or are incompatible with the group’s interpretation of Islamic and Afghan values. There is no universal experience across the changed media environment, as the level of subnational variation is notable. The position of individual de facto leaders on media freedom varies according to their personal viewpoints and relationship to the media in the past, and their perception of the value of media to extend the credibility and authority of the Taliban in the eyes of the target audience. Despite subnational variations, nationwide trends are becoming increasingly discernible, clear and solidified. Although in some cases the level of discretion may be higher, rules and practices are consistent and congruent – continuous harassment, attacks, and detention of journalists, the requirement for women journalists to cover their face when on air, and various tactics which combined lead to self-censorship and exclusion of women from the media. This indicates a systematic and coherent effort to muzzle the media and exclude women – their faces, perspectives, and experiences – from public spaces. Afghans across the country have grown to rely on television, radio, and other forms of media for information on a wide range of concerns. For some Afghans, including those now outside the country, social media – especially Facebook – has become an alternative media platform. However, without reliable, diverse, and independent media, all Afghans are denied access to information and plurality of opinions and ideas.
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19 April 2021
"اقدام اقلیمی برای مردم و سیاره: زمان آن اکنون است"
آنتونیو گوترش، سرمنشی ملل متحد علم و دانش یک پدیده غیرقابل انکار است و در سطح جهان توافق شده است که: برای جلوگیری از تبدیل شدن بحران آب و هوا به یک فاجعه دایمی، ما باید گرمایش جهانی را به ۱.۵ درجه سانتیگراد کاهش دهیم. برای انجام این کار، ما باید تا اواسط قرن انتشار گازهای گلخانهای را به صفر برسانیم. کشورهایی که حدود دو سوم اقتصاد جهانی را تشکیل می دهند متعهد به انجام این کار شده اند. این دلگرم کننده است، اما ما نیاز داریم که هر کشور، شهر، تجارت و موسسه مالی به گونه فوری به این ایتلاف بپیوندند و برنامه های مشخصی را برای کاهش گازهای گلخانهای به صفر روی دست گیرند. حتی نیاز جدی است تا دولتها برای رسیدن به این آرزوی درازمدت اقدامات عملی کنند، زیرا تریلیونها دالر برای غلبه بر همه گیری کووید -19 جمع شده است. احیای اقتصادها شانس ما برای مهندسی مجدد آینده ماست. جامعه جهانی یک چارچوب قوی برای عملکردها دارد: توافقنامه پاریس، که در آن همه کشورها متعهد شدند برنامههای ملی اقلیمی خود را تنظیم کرده و هر پنج سال یکبار آنها را تقویت کنند. پس از پنج سال، و با اثبات اینکه اگر ما اقدام نکنیم، سیاره خود را نابود می کنیم، زمان اقدام قاطع و موثر فرا رسیده است، زیرا سازمان ملل متحد در ماه نوامبر همه کشورها را در گلاسکو در کنفرانس تغییر اقلیم دعوت می کند. برنامههای ملی جدید باید آلودگی جهانی گازهای گلخانه ای را تا سال ۲۰۳۰ کم از کم ۴۵ درصد نسبت به سال ۲۰۱۰ کاهش دهد. بسیاری از آنها قبلاً ارایه شده اند و سیاستهای واضح تری برای سازگاری با تأثیرات تغییرات آب و هوایی و افزایش دسترسی به انرژی های تجدیدپذیر ارایه کرده اند. اما تا کنون، این برنامه ها کمتر از ۱ درصد کاهش انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای را به دست آورده اند. این یک هشدار رنگ سرخ برای مردم و کره زمین است. در ماههای آینده، با شروع اجلاس سران آینده به میزبانی ایالات متحده، دولتها باید به طور چشمگیری پلانهای خود را افزایش دهند - به ویژه بزرگترین کشورهایی که باعث انتشار بخش بزرگی از بحران شده اند. حذف زغال سنگ از سکتور برق مهمترین مرحله برای رسیدن به هدف ۱.۵ درجه است. اقدام فوری برای حذف کثیف ترین و آلوده کننده ترین سوختهای فسیلی از بخشهای انرژی ، به جهان ما فرصتی برای مبارزه می دهد. استفاده جهانی زغال سنگ در تولید برق باید تا سال ۲۰۳۰ هشتاد درصد کمتر از سطح ۲۰۱۰ باشد. این بدان معناست که کشورهای توسعه یافته باید متعهد شوند که تا سال ۲۰۳۰ زغال سنگ را کنار بگذارند. سایر کشورها باید این کار را تا سال ۲۰۴۰ انجام دهند. هیچ دلیلی وجود ندارد که هیچ کارخانه زغال سنگ جدیدی در هر مکانی ساخته شود. یک سوم ناوگان جهانی زغال سنگ در حال حاضر هزینه بالاتری نسبت به ساخت تجدیدپذیرها و ذخیره سازی جدید دارد. کنفرانس تغییر اقلیم یا COP26 باید پایان زغال سنگ را نشان دهد. از این که جهان به سوی هوای پاک و انرژی تجدیدپذیر حرکت میکند، ضروری است که ما از یک انتقال عادلانه اطمینان حاصل کنیم. کارگران صنایع آسیب دیده و بخش غیررسمی باید هنگام انتقال مشاغل یا افزایش مهارت، مورد حمایت قرار گیرند. ما همچنین باید قدرت عظیم زنان و دختران را در ایجاد تحول، از جمله مشارکت برابر در حکومتداری و تصمیم گیری، آزاد کنیم. کشورهایی که کمترین نقش را در تغییر آب و هوا داشته اند، بسیاری از بدترین تاثیرات را متحمل می شوند. اگر ما واکنش خود را افزایش ندهیم، بسیاری از کشورهای جزیرهای کوچک به سادگی از بین می روند. کشورهای توسعه یافته باید به تعهدات خود برای تأمین و بسیج سالانه ۱۰۰ میلیارد دالر از طریق موارد زیر عمل کنند: دو برابر شدن سطح جاری منابع مالی آب و هوا؛ اختصاص نیمی از منابع مالی آب و هوا به سازگاری؛ توقف بودجه بین المللی زغال سنگ؛ و انتقال یارانه ها از سوخت های فسیلی به انرژی های تجدیدپذیر اجلاس جی ۷ در ماه جون فرصتی را برای ثروتمندترین کشورهای جهان فراهم می آورد تا تعهدات مالی لازم را برای موفقیت COP26 تضمین کنند. در حالی که دولتها باید رهبری کنند، تصمیم گیرندگان در همه جا نقش حیاتی دارند. من از همه بانکهای توسعه چند جانبه و ملی تا COP26 یا کنفرانس تغییر اقلیم، می خواهم که سیاست های مشخصی را برای تأمین بودجه بهبود وضعیت کرونا و گذار به اقتصادهای مقاوم در کشورهای در حال توسعه با در نظر گرفتن سطح بدهی فلج کننده و فشارهای زیاد بر بودجههای ملی وضع کنند. بسیاری از دولتهای محلی و مشاغل خصوصی متعهد شده اند که تا سال ۲۰۵۰ میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانهای را صفر کرده و مدلهای تجاری خود را مورد بررسی جدی قرار دهند. من از همه می خواهم که اهداف و سیاست های بلندپروازانه ای را تعیین کنند. من جوانان را در همه جا تشویق می کنم تا صدای خود را برای اقدام برای مقابله با تغییرات آب و هوا، حفاظت از تنوع زیستی، توقف جنگ بشریت با طبیعت و تسریع تلاشها برای دستیابی به اهداف توسعه پایدار ادامه دهند. زمان در حال تمام شدن است و کارهای سختی در پیش است، اما این زمان برای برافراشتن پرچم سفید نیست. سازمان ملل متحد به پرچم آبی همبستگی و امید ما ادامه خواهد داد. در این <روز زمین> و ماههای سرنوشت ساز پیش رو، من از همه ملتها و همه مردم می خواهم که تا با هم همصدا شوند.
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09 January 2022
Afghanistan: Humanitarian Needs Overview (2022)
Context, Shocks/Events, and Impact of the Crisis Following 40 years of war and an already dire situation of increasing hunger, economic decline, price rises in food and other essential needs, and rising poverty over the past several years, over 2021 the people of Afghanistan faced intensified conflict, the withdrawal of international forces and then the takeover of the country by the Taliban in August. The resulting political, social and economic shocks have reverberated across the country with a massive deterioration of the humanitarian and protection situation in the 4th quarter of 2021 and the outlook for 2022 remaining profoundly uncertain. Afghanistan’s population is estimated to be 41.7m in 2021, of whom 51 per cent are men and 49 per cent are women. A staggering 47 per cent of the population are under 15 years old, giving Afghanistan one of the highest youth populations in the world. With a projected population growth rate of 2.3 per cent per annum, one of the steepest in the region, the country’s financially-dependent youth population is set to grow even further. Population growth, internal displacement, higher-than- usual rates of cross-border return are contributing to increased strain on limited resources, livelihood opportunities and basic services, as well as an increase in protection risks especially for most at risk groups. It is estimated that there are more than 2.6 million Afghan refugees worldwide and more than 5.5 million people displaced by conflict inside the country. Scope of Analysis This Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) looks at likely evolution of humanitarian needs in Afghanistan throughout 2022 with an inter-sectoral approach to the analysis that recognises the multi-dimensional nature of people’s needs across sectors. The situation beyond 2022 remains extremely uncertain with a wide- range of risks that could upset planning assumptions. These risks and potential implications to 2021 planning are outlined in the risks section of this analysis (pg 49). The political takeover by the Taliban and the possible range of geo-political responses, as well as transformed security dynamics have made much previous analysis used to anticipate needs (trends in the “fighting season”) of questionable utility. Thus, forward projections beyond 2022 would be unreliable and so have not been included in this analysis. All 2022 calculations are based on the joint planning assumptions that are outlined in the risk sections in regard to the evolution of the political and security situation, with different seasonal influences on needs throughout the year including the onset of winter, rainfall patterns, agricultural planting and harvest seasons, and others (see pg. 51 for seasonal influences on needs). Greater emphasis has been placed on the drought impact and economic fallout from the crisis in the analysis, under the assumption that large-scale conflict is likely to be a relatively smaller factor in driving needs then in previous years. This analysis will be updated on a rolling basis as conditions change. Population Groups Because of the multi-dimensional threat facing Afghanistan of economic collapse, political instability, conflict and climate, needs are deep and widespread across the country, affecting all provinces. While the broader categories of the populations of concern for 2022 will remain similar to 2021, new sub-groups of Afghanistan’s rural and urban communities whose vulnerabilities have been aggravated by the conflict, drought and economic shocks and years of lack of recovery, have been included. Internally Displaced People (only includes newly displaced due to all causes in 2022) Shock-Affected Non-Displaced People (people newly affected by floods and other natural disasters in 2022) Vulnerable People with Humanitarian Needs (including protracted IDPs and those displaced before 2022, vulnerable protracted cross border returnees, IDP returnees, people affected by economic shock and income loss) Cross-Border Returnees (newly returned in 2022) Refuges and Asylum Seekers This HNO applies protection, gender, age, disability, mental health and AAP lenses to its analysis with disaggregated data used throughout, where available. Humanitarian Conditions, Severity and People in Need The deteriorating context and an increase in population estimates (now 41.7 million people) have combined to leave a projected 24.4 million people in humanitarian need in 2022, up from 18.4 million people at the start of 202. These humanitarian needs estimates were calculated using the Joint Inter-sectoral Analysis Framework or JIAF approach, which looks holistically at the needs facing people in Afghanistan and measures the severity of these needs using a series of inter-sectoral indicators. The JIAF inter-sectoral analysis of needs revealed that there are needs in every province of the country. With extreme need in 29 out of 34 provinces and the rest in severe need, with almost all population groups of concern present in every province (except refugees who are centred in Khost and Paktika). The analysis shows that the intensification of the conflict through August 2021, a consecutive year of drought, other natural disasters, Covid-19 and the broad-based economic crisis following the collapse of the Government has tipped many people from extreme poverty into outright catastrophe. With coping mechanisms and safety nets largely exhausted – as previous HNOs have warned --the collapse of basic services and development programming since August has pushed a large number of people reliant on development assistance into crisis. An updated Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis shows that in the first quarter of 2022, a staggering 23 million people, or 55 per cent of the population, are expected to be in crisis or emergency levels of food insecurity (IPC 3 and 4). 8.7 million people projected to be in IPC 4 – the highest number in the world. The fundamental drivers of food insecurity in Afghanistan include widespread poverty and economic fragility, extreme weather and climatic shocks, land degradation, and decades of conflict that have limited the spread of essential public services and safety nets. According to the Global Citizen report on the Worst Countries for Gender Equality, Afghanistan is the worst place to be a woman. Afghan women and girls face unique vulnerabilities and risks as gender inequality is interwoven with the conflict dynamics and humanitarian needs. There are grave concerns about the roll-back on women’s rights and restrictions on their participation in life and society, with impositions introduced on education, right to work and freedom of movement of girls and women. Even with 55% of the country already in humanitarian need, the possibility of a further deterioration is very real. The majority of the remainder of the country requires the continuation and restoration of services addressing basic human needs to prevent them from slipping into humanitarian crisis.
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13 December 2021
One shining light: how medical supplies airlifted to Afghanistan have been used to save lives
In desperation, Rana, the junior wife in their household of 12, brought Amina to the National Infectious Diseases hospital hoping for some help. And help there was. As soon as Amina arrived, she was assessed as severely dehydrated, and treatment began. “This is the one shining light in a very dark time” said Rana as she stood by Amina’s bedside. Although none of the staff have been paid for 3 months, the doctors and nurses have been coming every day, simply because, as the hospital director, Dr Asadullah Esmat, said ‘This is our job. We are trained for that. Our staff say to us, ‘No problem, I am working for the people of Afghanistan’ In early September, just a few weeks after the change in political regime, people began arriving at the hospital with acute watery diarrhoea. Numbers climbed quickly, peaking at over 100 people per day. Many people had delayed seeking care, not certain if help would still be available, and arrived severely dehydrated, needing urgent rehydration. The hospital was already crowded with people needing advanced care for the many infectious diseases challenging the people of Afghanistan – meningitis, tuberculosis, HIV, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, COVID-19 to name a few. But it was essential to isolate and treat everyone who had acute watery diarrhoea to save lives. “We emptied out several wards, discharging those patients who were well enough, putting others in other parts of the hospital, even the corridors. We needed one female and one male isolation ward to comply with the new rules.” said Dr Esmat. WHO was able to supply critical protective equipment for health workers, such as gloves, masks and lifesaving treatment such as intravenous rehydration fluids. Since mid-August, donors have responded to WHO appeals for help and over 240 metric tonnes of medical supplies to help with all manner of health challenges, including acute watery diarrhoea have been airlifted to Afghanistan via 14 flights. Supplies are still desperately needed but more flights are coming. The supplies and the commitment of the health workers have paid off in lives saved. “Overall, we treated around 3000 patients and not one of them died. Thanks to the supplies and support we received from WHO, who came and helped in the earliest stage of the outbreak, we were able to provide the best care possible, even in these difficult circumstances,” said Professor Mohammad Murad Mamozai, the hospital’s medical director. The numbers of acute watery diarrhoea cases appear to be declining; fewer people are coming to hospital needing treatment for this, and numbers elsewhere are falling. But the outbreak did spread to 5 provinces and more than 3339 people have been infected. Work to identify every case, ensure water and sanitation measures are taken, such as chlorination of water sources, needs to be done to prevent further infection. All this depends on regular medical supplies coming into the country via WHO and other UN agencies. The other critical factor is the work being done by skilled and committed Afghan professionals, who are still turning up to work, despite still waiting to be paid. As Leda, a 26-year-old nurse working in the infectious disease hospital explained when asked how she stays motivated, “I wanted to be a nurse ever since I was a little girl. Yes, we don’t have a salary, but I love what I do.“
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